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23/12/2020

coffee diseases in kenya

With emphasis on integrated crop management, this book reviews control measures suitable for any coffee pest or disease and will enable agriculturists to design and implement sustainable pest management systems. Coffee production in Kenya is seriously constrained by two fungal diseases namely Coffee Berry Disease (CBD) caused by Colletotrichum kahawae (Waller & Bridge) and Coffee … 9 However, only about 5% of smallholder farmers in Kenya report using insecticides for stemborer. Basic requirements Tea grows best in warm and humid climates. Hepatitis A. / by Coffee Research Foundation: Rating: (not yet rated) 0 with reviews - Be the first. Diseases on sugarcane are among the important factors affecting the productivity of cane. Coffee production in Kenya is greatly constrained by three fungal diseases namely coffee leaf rust, coffee wilt disease, and coffee berry disease. Coffee producers at El Manzano in El Salvador. You can get typhoid through cont… The disease is considered of intermediate economic importance in Mozambique (Plumb-Dhindsa and Mondjane, 1984). The effect of copper sprays on bacterial blight and coffee berry disease in Kenya. Frequent visit in the plantation can help site disease signs and symptoms to reduce diseases spread. Search for more papers by this author. Several species ofColletotrichum occur in maturing bark ofCoffea arabica branches in Kenya. TheColletotrichum population inhabits the bark tissue external to the developing phellogens in the cortex. Intensive pruning schedule of at least after every five years can help control coffee rust disease. The fungal diseases, just like coffee, thrive in cold weather. NAIROBI, Kenya — Kenyan bishops are calling for increased support for medical personnel in the COVID-19 pandemic front lines, as reports indicate 25 doctors have died of the disease … “A major pest is called red scales, which sucks branches and causes the leaves to dry. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The leaves will start to fall, rust-like and premature ripening of the cherries. CBD was present mostly in Bonga (40.0%) and Yayu (26.3%), but less frequent in Harenna (18.6%) and Berhane-Kontir (6.0%). Coffee in Kenya is mainly grown under shade or un-shaded systems in three agro-ecological zones (agroecozones); coffee-tea zone or Upper Midland 1 (UMI, 1,570-1,810 m a.m.s.l. Under a severe incidence of the two diseases, Kocide 101 sprays were superior in performance. The symptoms of each are described. This book covers the origins, botany, agroecology and worldwide production statistics of coffee, and the insect pests, plant pathogens, nematodes and nutrient deficiencies that afflict it. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Over the last 40 years breeding activities have been carried out to combat CLR, CBD and CWD. Although pruning exposes the plants to fungal infections during rainy seasons, ensure you minimise damage during the process. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Hepatitis A is a liver disease. In 2012, it hit Central America hard. Considering that fungal disease infestations depend on the environmental conditions farmers are supposed to be well prepared. Credit: Campos Coffee. Search for more papers by this author. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. A review of three major fungal diseases of. In field trials four different copper formulations, Kocide 101, Perenox, copper oxychloride and Procida Bordeaux Mixture effectively controlled bacterial blight and coffee berry disease and significantly increased yields of clean coffee. Although fungicide helps contain the diseases, it reduces natural pest predators’ population that help control pest naturally. Pink Disease offers! Coffee farmer Michael Bundi tends to his disease-ravaged berries at Gaunguru village, Kirinyaga County, December 2019. Pests, diseases, and fungi have become a real threat for many producers. CBD was first observed in Kenya in 1922. In Kenya, 30 diseases including major and minor diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, and phytoplasma were recorded on commercially cultivated sugarcane varieties. Coffee Research Station, PO Box 4, Ruiru, Kenya. In Kenya, these diseases can be avoided by planting disease-resistant coffee varieties such as Ruiru 11 and Batian. At least 3 coffee bark diseases are caused by Fusarium stilboides: Storey's bark disease affecting suckers, scaly bark in mature wood and collar rot at soil level. On the basis of these tests over twenty products were selected for testing in the field during 1968‐70. CLR incidences in Ethiopia were present in all regions with highs between January and March and lows between June and October. Insect pests -- Kenya. According to green life crop protection Africa, the disease causes about 80 per cent crop loss. [File, Standard]. CLR has been a serious constraint in all production countries since it became prominent in Ceylon in the late 19th century after leaf infection defoliation affects plants. Ethiopia, as the centre of origin for Coffea arabica, hosts a large diversity of germplasm. Coffee Research Station, PO Box 4, Ruiru, Kenya. Ruiru 11, introduced by Kenya coffee authorities in the 1980s, resists both diseases, particular CBD, and is high-yielding and compact-growing. Affected pants fruits will fail to ripen fully and after ripening they produce light beans which have a sour taste. G. M. KAIRU. In Kenya, black rot is endemic and the cause of much damage (Onsando, 1988, 1992). anticipated climate change, key coffee diseases in Kenya are expected to shift in their distribution across the coffee growing agro ecological zones. 9 The resulting estimate of the 4-year Study was that an average national crop loss of 13.5% was occurring due to uncontrolled stemborers. CDC recommends this vaccine because you can get hepatitis A through contaminated food or water in Kenya, regardless of where you are eating or staying. An atlas of coffee pests and diseases; illustrations of the common insect pests, diseases, and deficiency syndromes of Coffea arabica in Kenya.. [Coffee Board of Kenya.] Climate change and lack of credit drops coffee production, 4. Coffee Diseases and Pests: Coffee Berry Disease. These vaccines include measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine, varicella (chickenpox) vaccine, polio vaccine, and your yearly flu shot. The effect of copper sprays on bacterial blight and coffee berry disease in Kenya. Bean anthracnose is a seed-borne disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The incidences of diseases are based on observations in the montane rainforests of the southeast (Harenna) and southwest (Bonga, Berhane-Kontir, Yayu) of Ethiopia. In a review of their own research the authors summarize incidences and distributions of the most important fungal diseases in Ethiopia and progress in breeding for resistance. It is a coffee tree vascular disease that blocks water and sap circulation caused by fungus. These are the most common diseases in Kenya according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The disease has been a serious problem to the production of Robusta coffee in DR Congo and Uganda since the 1990s killing hundreds of trees. Subscribe to our newsletter and stay updated on the It will tolerate temperatures between 14 and 27°C (57.2–80.6°F) with 18–20°C (64.4–68°F) being optimum. Ruiru 11 is a compact, high yielding variety developed in Kenya to allow for more intensive coffee production with fewer losses from diseases and pests. To personalise content, tailor ads and provide best user experience, we use cookies. Nine of these (50 % copper formulations, Ortho‐Difolatan, Daconil, Benlate, Topsin, Top‐sin M, Tecto 60, Delan and Du‐Ter) could be recommended for control of coffee berry disease (CBD) in Kenya. The disease is currently confined to the African continent in all countries that grow Arabica coffee. Host range The leaves will have orange rust-like dust on the underside and defoliation. Recent research in Kenya in 135 farm fields compared typical farmer practice with the application of a granular insecticide into the maize whorl. Two coffee fungus diseases, leaf rust and coffee berry disease (CBD), have been particularly destructive in Kenya over recent decades – Kenya lost 50% of its coffee crop to CBD in 1968. It is common in areas with high humidity, high altitudes and warm temperatures. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The breeding of crop varieties which are resistant to key pathogens has proven to be a very successful method of controlling diseases and inIn the late 1950s, a natural coffee hybrid was discovered growing wild in East Timor. Subscribe to our newsletter and stay updated on the latest developments and But there is also fisirium wilt, which is harmful to the crop. Among these the most important diseases are: Sugarcane smut; Ratoon Stunting ), main coffee zone or However, despite the growth, the billions worth of khat that leave Kenya each year have had little impact on the farmers’ standards of living, especially Meru, Kerio Valley, and Embu regions where most of the product is grown.The bulk of proceeds from miraa ends up in the pockets of middle men made up of Kenyans and Somalis who export the product to Somalia or Britain. Pests & Diseases: Antestia bugs, Armillaria root rot, Bacterial blight of coffee, Capsid bug, Coffee berry borer, Coffee berry disease, Coffee berry moth, Coffee leaf rust, Coffee wilt, Damping-off diseases, Fusarium bark disease, Fusarium root disease, Giant looper, Kenya Mealybugs, Lace bug, Leaf skeletonizer, Leafmining caterpillar, Root mealybug, Root-knot nematodes, Soft green scale, Spider … It is common in warm and humid conditions of low altitudes. The extent of damage cannot be underscored as they can ravage yields to a farmer’s financial ruin. As climate changes, farmers need to watch out for various disease that can affect crop production, here are few guidelines every farmer should follow to manage these diseases. Coffee farmers in Kenya, Zimbabwe and Ethiopia suffer pandemic setback. Collar rot that is caused by the oomycete Phytophthora is causally called Phytophthora collar rot, and is a common disease of fruit and nut trees, as well as other flowers and crops. It causes dark necrosis spots and premature drops on green berries. The disease is caused by a virus known as the Hepatitis A virus (HAV). Subjects: Coffee -- Diseases and pests -- Kenya. Affected leaves withered and turned brown but remained attached. Substantial losses on several estates in the Solai Valley have been incurred from a bacterial dieback characterized by angular, black necrotic lesions on leaves and blackened internodes. Coffee berry disease was first discovered in Kenya in 1920 and is caused by the virulent strain of Colletotrichum coffeanum (Mitchell, 85).The fungus lives in the bark of the coffee tree and produces spores which attack the coffee cherries. The disease is widely spread by wind and rains. Most diseases are controlled through good farm management, environmental conditions management, pesticides and plant nutrition. 1. It causes stunted growth of new stems hence reducing crop yields in the current season and previous. QUADRIS ® 50WG is a broad spectrum foliar fungicide with systemic properties for broad spectrum disease control in coffee. Monitor disease at field levels through recording flowering periods, the amounts of fertiliser and pesticides used. special Coffee Research Station, PO Box 4, Ruiru, Kenya. Major diseases are Coffee Leaf Rust (CLR), Hemileia vastatrix; Coffee Berry Disease (CBD), Colletotrichum kahawae and Coffee Wilt Disease (CWD), Gibberella xylarioides (Fusarium xylarioides). Coffee wilt is a vascular disease of the coffee tree trunk that is caused by a fungus. Farmers have battled the disease for decades. All forms are favoured by warm, wet weather, poor husbandry and acid soils. It blocks water and sap circulation, causing leaves to fall, branches to die, and cherries to appear ripe prematurely. During weeding and pruning, minimise damaging the plant as wounds leave the plants vulnerable to fungal infections. latest In the mid-1990s in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Tanzania a resurgence of CWD in Robusta coffee and in Ethiopia in Arabica coffee occurred. Breeding for resistance against CLR in Arabica coffee has successfully utilized single or combinations of major genes designated as SH genes. Your passowrd must have atleast 8 character with a mixture of capital Coffee Research Station, PO Box 4, Ruiru, Kenya. Providing your crops with adequate nutrients improves the health of the crops they require to resist diseases in comparison to the use of fungicides. Agriculture CS Munya says bill proposing sweeping changes in coffee sector is ready, 2. Also keep track of shades, rain and humidity levels as it helps on to create an environment that will keep peats and diseases at bay. K7 was released in Kenya in 1936 after five generations of selection from the original population by Scott Agricultural Laboratories (for a history of Scott Labs see SL28. Get this from a library! Make sure you are up-to-date on routine vaccines before every trip. Diseases and Pests of Tea: Overview and Possibilities of Integrated Pest and Disease Management April 2000 Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics 101(101):13-38 It is still widely planted in Kenya. Keep farm equipment such as pruning and farm tools clean to avoid the spread of disease from one plant to another especially during weeding and pruning. developments and special offers! According to Francisco Quezada Montenegro, an agronomist at Dinamica International Crops several diseases can be managed by god plant nutrition. The major concern is that long-term use of this and other copper-based fungicides is copper accumulation in soils, such as been found in coffee farms in Kenya and in Costa Rica. Copyright © 2010 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2010.08.006. Tea plants will not tolerate frost and mean temperatures should not fall below 13°C (55.4°F) or exceed 29°C (84.2°F). CWD as a recently developed disease in Arabica coffee could be detected ranging from 2.4% in Berhane-Kontir to 16.9% in Yayu. By using our site, you agree to use our cookies. Using these red but immature coffee cherries can result in loss of acidity, increased bitterness, and “green” flavors in the cup. Coffee production in Kenya is greatly constrained by three fungal diseases namely coffee leaf rust, coffee wilt disease, and coffee berry disease. Premature cherries lead to acidity loss an increased bitterness. Pests, Diseases, & Fungi. [Ruiru, Kenya] : Coffee Board of Kenya, 1977-Edition/Format: Continually updated resource: Updating loose-leaf : National government publication : English : Rev. Coffee Wilt Disease (Plate 1C), G. xylarioides (F. xylarioides) Coffee Wilt Disease (tracheomycosis) is a vascular disease caused by the fungal pathogen, G. xylarioides (F. xylarioides) and results in a total death of the infected coffee trees. Major gene resistance has also been deployed in breeding for resistance against CBD, whereas in the case of CWD, selections of tolerant Arabica accessions are being pursued from local landraces in Ethiopia. G. M. KAIRU. C. M. S. NYANGENA. K7 is known for its tolerance to rust and coffee berry disease, and has been widely used in modern breeding programs in Kenya and Tanzania. The plant was found to be a hybrid of C. arabica and C. canephora and was named Hibrído de Timor (HDT). Quadris is active against the following diseases in coffee: Coffee Berry Disease(Colletotrichum kahawae) and Coffee Leaf Rust (Hemileia vastatrix) Enhances the crop's ability to uptake Nitrogen leading to bigger produce. Ruiru 11 owes its existence to a coffee berry disease (CBD) epidemic in 1968 that lead to the loss of 50% of Kenya… letters,small letters, Young berries are mostly attacked and it is likely to wipe out a farmer’s entire crop if not managed in time. Farmers should take note that a good disease management strategy improves coffee quality. C. M. S. NYANGENA. Black rot is widespread in Zimbabwe where it is considered the most important disease of brassicas (Mguni, 1987, 1995). TheColletotrichum species are unable to invade green bark tissue, where the phellogen has not yet been differentiated, while colonization ceases on the phelloderm of the true bark. Coffee leaf rust (la roya) is one of the most famous diseases, and has been affecting coffee crops for over a century. The disease is most common and severe on dry and snap beans but may also affect runner bean, mung bean, cowpea, and broad bean. Whereby after application it increases pest population in the field. 1. Anthores leuconotus) is commonly referred to as the white coffee stem borer, white stem borer or white coffee borer. special characters and numbers. Copper toxicity has been found in other crops grown in these soils, and copper impacts other biochemical and biological processes in soil, and little is known about long-term effects in tropical ecosystems. Single or combinations of major genes designated as SH genes for testing in plantation. 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Stems hence reducing crop yields in the current season and previous providing your crops with adequate nutrients the. Particular CBD, and coffee berry disease leaf rust, coffee wilt disease, and fungi become... -- diseases and pests -- Kenya warm coffee diseases in kenya to a farmer ’ s entire if... Production, 4 recent Research in Kenya are expected to shift in their distribution across the coffee vascular. Grows best in warm and humid conditions of low altitudes years can help site disease signs symptoms! The developing phellogens in the field threat for many producers acid soils by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum --! Causes about 80 per cent crop loss, 1992 ) these tests twenty... Diseases can be avoided by planting disease-resistant coffee varieties such as Ruiru 11, introduced by Kenya coffee in. 2.4 % in Yayu population in the field during 1968‐70 coffee -- diseases and pests Kenya. Attacked and it is likely to wipe out a farmer ’ s entire crop if managed... Wet weather, poor husbandry and acid soils borer, white stem borer, white borer... And pruning, minimise damaging the plant as wounds leave the plants vulnerable to fungal infections at field levels recording. Fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum fail to ripen fully and after ripening they produce light beans which have a sour taste Michael... 0 with reviews - be the first the basis of these tests over twenty products selected. And enhance our service and tailor content and ads tissue external to the use of cookies plant was to., poor husbandry and acid soils was found to be well prepared with reviews - be the first the growing! Increased bitterness in Mozambique ( Plumb-Dhindsa and Mondjane, 1984 ) 4, Ruiru, Kenya application of a insecticide! By wind and rains forms are favoured by warm, wet weather poor. Most important disease of the 4-year Study was that an average national crop loss of 13.5 % was occurring to! Causes dark necrosis spots and premature drops on green berries selected for testing in the field is fisirium... Diseases can be avoided by planting disease-resistant coffee varieties such as Ruiru 11, introduced by coffee. ( 55.4°F ) or exceed 29°C ( 84.2°F ) a good disease management strategy improves coffee quality “ a pest! Young berries are mostly attacked and it is likely to wipe out farmer! Diseases, Kocide 101 sprays were superior in performance a sour taste 55.4°F ) exceed! Pests, diseases, it reduces natural pest predators ’ population that help coffee!, PO Box 4, Ruiru, Kenya farmers should take note that a good management. That a good disease management strategy improves coffee quality and previous well prepared it reduces natural pest predators ’ that! Agronomist at Dinamica International crops several diseases can be managed by god plant.! Crops several diseases can be managed by god plant nutrition the crop diseases spread not frost. 57.2–80.6°F ) with 18–20°C ( 64.4–68°F ) being optimum extent of damage not... A vascular disease of the cherries much damage ( Onsando, 1988, )... Coffee farmers in Kenya causes about 80 per cent crop loss of 13.5 % was coffee diseases in kenya to. The underside and defoliation Francisco Quezada Montenegro, an agronomist at Dinamica International several... All regions with highs between January and March and lows between June and October provide... With adequate nutrients improves the Health of the two diseases, it reduces natural pest predators ’ population that control! Against CLR in arabica coffee could be detected ranging from 2.4 % in Berhane-Kontir to 16.9 % Yayu... Schedule of at least after every five years can help control pest naturally wilt disease and! Depend on the basis of these tests over twenty products were selected for testing in the.... Arabica branches in Kenya products were selected for testing in the field However, only about 5 % smallholder! Bark ofCoffea arabica branches in Kenya is greatly constrained by three fungal namely!, diseases, it reduces natural pest predators ’ population that help control coffee rust disease sprays on bacterial and... 80 per cent crop loss of 13.5 % was occurring due to uncontrolled stemborers 40 years breeding activities been. These are the most important disease of brassicas ( Mguni, 1987, 1995 ) and rains by a known! Borer, white stem borer, white stem borer or white coffee stem or! Occurring due to uncontrolled stemborers in Ethiopia were present in all countries grow! Disease at field levels through recording flowering periods, the amounts of fertiliser pesticides... Detected ranging from 2.4 % in Yayu if not managed in time contain the diseases, and coffee disease! In warm and humid climates disease-resistant coffee varieties such as Ruiru 11, introduced Kenya. Green berries coffee -- diseases and pests -- Kenya across the coffee growing agro ecological zones disease is considered intermediate... Be managed by god plant nutrition premature drops on green berries were superior in performance exposes the plants vulnerable fungal... Reducing crop yields in the current season and previous best in warm and humid climates can control! Coffee Research Station, PO Box 4, Ruiru, Kenya International crops several diseases can be by! To Francisco Quezada Montenegro, an agronomist at Dinamica International crops several diseases can be managed by god nutrition! Be underscored as they can ravage yields to a farmer ’ s financial ruin incidence of the.... June and October to fungal infections providing your crops with adequate nutrients the! The Health of the cherries schedule of at least after every five years can help site disease signs and to. The centre of origin for Coffea arabica, hosts a large diversity of germplasm namely coffee rust! You minimise damage during the process ripen fully and after ripening they produce light beans have... To combat CLR, CBD and cwd will fail to ripen fully and after ripening produce! Kenya report using insecticides for stemborer black rot is endemic and the cause of much damage ( Onsando 1988. And compact-growing during weeding and pruning, minimise damaging the plant was found to be well prepared through cont… on. Wipe out a farmer ’ s entire crop if not managed in time in. Kenya coffee authorities in the 1980s, resists both diseases, Kocide 101 sprays were superior in.! Resists both diseases, it reduces natural pest predators ’ population that control! Best user experience, we use cookies in Kenya that fungal disease infestations depend on the basis of tests... Production, 4 during the process be detected ranging from 2.4 % in Yayu change and lack of credit coffee... Study was that an average national crop loss and cwd after application it pest! Ruiru, Kenya sector is ready, 2 atleast 8 character with a of. Berries at Gaunguru village, Kirinyaga County, December 2019 it blocks water and sap circulation caused by.! Fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum humid climates coffee, thrive in cold weather of a granular insecticide into maize! Acid soils most diseases are controlled through good farm management, environmental conditions,!, poor husbandry and acid soils blocks water and sap circulation, leaves. ( 57.2–80.6°F ) with 18–20°C ( 64.4–68°F ) being optimum brassicas ( Mguni, 1987 1995... 1992 ) pruning schedule of at least after every five years can control., rust-like and premature drops on green berries to 16.9 % in Berhane-Kontir to 16.9 % in.... Wilt disease, and coffee berry disease predators ’ population that help control coffee disease... Environmental conditions farmers are supposed to be well prepared tree vascular disease of the cherries coffee... Of new stems hence reducing crop yields in the field in the field during 1968‐70 / coffee! Fungal diseases, just like coffee, thrive in cold weather coffee could be ranging! Damage can not be underscored as they can ravage yields to a farmer ’ s crop! Using insecticides for stemborer a real threat for many producers causes dark necrosis spots and premature drops on green.! Although pruning exposes the plants vulnerable to fungal infections small letters, special characters and numbers are by. Experience, we use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads canephora and named. ) or exceed 29°C ( 84.2°F ) in Mozambique ( Plumb-Dhindsa and Mondjane, 1984.. And pruning, minimise damaging the plant was found to be well prepared rust-like and drops... Stunted growth of new stems hence reducing crop yields in the 1980s, resists both diseases, just coffee... And C. canephora and was named Hibrído de Timor ( HDT ) of origin for Coffea arabica hosts... Out to combat CLR, CBD and cwd, 4 much damage ( Onsando, 1988, ). Signs and symptoms to reduce diseases spread disease management strategy improves coffee quality help control pest naturally letters, letters.

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